(Ignacio) Hello everyone, my name is Dr. Ignacio Ciampitti. I am a Crop System Specialist with Kansas State University Agronomy Department. Today we are here at the Agronomy Farm, it’s just a farm that is located a couple blocks from the main campus at K-State. And we are just visiting some of the crops that we have around the area just to talk about some of the production issues that we are seeing and expecting from now until harvest. Some of the things that we’ll probably talk about today in corn, specifically, we are seeing some situations and some conditions that they are very favorable for presenting moldy ears. So, here we have one plant that is basically… when we are taking a look to the ears, is showing some of the signs and symptoms of moldy ears. So, how do we know really that we have a moldy ear situation. One of the things that we need to look most of the times, conditions that we are showing in these situations are when the ears are still upright. And also when we have some moisture inside of the ears. In these situations we are showing some of the moldy ears we have in the field. Another main cause of the moldy ears when we are getting close to harvest is when the plant is affected by stress. Any plant that was affected by stress early or later in the reproductive period basically stopped growing. The moisture content that we have inside of the ear is one of the main factors that has really caused these issues by the end of growing season. Of course this situation is always possible and is really promoting these moldy ears when we have late season rains. And this is what we are seeing right now in similar situations around the state of Kansas. We have and we are promoting these moldy ears. So how the moldy ears will impact our yields? First of all in this situation when the ears are before finishing development, one of the main causes that we can have is problem seem… reactions seem fine and wait and then basically another issue will be the quality. These are some of the things that we are watching on corn. Another thing that we can see on our field sometimes in this ear around here, we are seeing right now a situation that we have every good sets of ears, but due to different stress we are probably around pollination, the ear is totally empty and it is arrested. So this is what we call arrested ears. And those arrested ears are caused by situations where they were promoting before flowering that any canopy was developing. So, we are just reaching the end of the growing season for corn, and we are still seeing some of those ears are standing, they are upright, the plant is looking very healthy but we are taking a look inside of the ears, we are not having green. Late season rains will be probably impacting an increased seed weight only in situations that we have for example corn that is reaching maybe our three or four stage, what we call during the rain filling period. When the corn is very advanced and in some situations like we’ll not be seeing here, but in some situations around the state we are almost in 80 percent of the corn that is already denting, so when we are in denting stage, we just have a very short time between denting stage and final maturity. And depending on the temperatures that probably will be maybe 15 or 20 days, from denting stage until maturity. In those stages when we are having the corn in that stage all late season rains are just minimally impacting seed weight. And one of many issues that we are finding is that we are producing and promoting more of the moldy ears. Some of the things that they are really adding on to this problem is when we have some of the ears that they show some exposed ear. What we call exposed ears. And we have an example here- situations that they are stressed when flowering and then when the stress is being relieved after flowering, the ears tend to keep elongating. And the problem is when the ears are being exposed. So, those ears and those fields are the ones that will be more susceptible to late season rain and to the moldy ears. So just go out and take a look at your corn before harvest. Make sure we can scout for these moldy ears. Just do really present some relevancy and see how we are going to go ahead and protect our yield.