Ignacio Ciampitti – Low Temps

(Ignacio) One of the last factors that I would like to talk about briefly is about the fate of low temperatures and how these low temperatures can be impacting crops. On the night of September 11 we had some low temperatures that were going around through the state. Specifically, I want to make some focus on the central section in Kansas, and the north western section in Kansas. We do have some temperatures that were reaching really close to 30 degrees Fahrenheit. So the question for everyone and the question that we have from farmers is how these low temperatures are impacting yields. So, when we are looking at specifically for corn, the fate of the low temperatures and how the corn is advancing in the growing season, I am looking at the corn as I mentioned before is getting to denting stage and it’s from there we are moving very close and we have maybe 20-15 days until maturity. So the impact of any kind of early season freeze affects us. We have probably on the overnight temperatures, is probably not that bad, just because the corn is very advanced. And the main impact that we can see is probably we will be affecting some of the seed weight. And depending on exactly how low was the temperature. And what we are looking to low temperatures we are probably thinking about two factors. The first one is the absolute value. Are the temperatures below 30 degrees? So if the temperature is below 30 degrees regardless how long is the duration of that temperature, we know that that kind of a temperature value can kill the corn plants. So if we are experiencing some situations… their position in the field, or places with really not so much residue, those situations are the ones that we may probably see even when the air temperature is probably around 30 degrees, that specific area in the field might be lower, so we would probably start to see in the next coming weeks some effects of that. And it is how we will be seeing those effects, one of the main effects we will be seeing will be premature leaf necrosis, basically we are seeing more senescence. In some of the corn that is already close to harvest, we will probably not see any effect because some of the corn is already dry. So the only impact that we get to see is that there will be a disconnection between all the flow of nutrients that is going from the plant to the ear. And the ear is interrupting… kind of the growth of the kernel and the plants are probably getting to maturity induced by the low temperature. But as I mentioned before the effect is really minimal just because we are getting really close to the harvest time.
(Ignacio) So the second crop that I would like to touch base on is the sorghum. What happened with the temperatures when the low temperatures are impacting sorghum. And the main effect is very similar to what we mentioned in corn. We tend to see and we will potentially be seeing some low test grain. And the low test weight and the low seed… is just driven by the small seed size. So at this moment as we explained before in sorghum, we are entering into a coloring stage. So we are still working on the grain filling, so the seeds are still changing size. And any temperature that is below 32 degrees Fahrenheit and is below probably even more 30 degrees will be really closing the flow of nutrients from the plant and the flow of carbon from the plant to the head and to the grain. So that situation, what is promoting is basically the seeds will be staying that specific size. And seed weight and the small seeds will produce maybe some troubles and issues when we are harvesting for threshing. So, in this case when we are thinking about sorghum and do for the growing stage that we are facing, we may see some more impacts on sorghum as compared with corn on the low temperatures. Probably impacting much more on the low test grain and also maybe we may see some impact on the grain quality. How much starch, protein ratio we have in the grain. And the last one is for soybeans. And on soybeans as we mentioned before as we were talking about all the different crops, we are still at the pod set, so we are entering on the beginning of seed formation, beginning of seed filling. And soybeans are also highly impacted by low temperature and we are seeing very similar numbers when the temperature is below 30 degrees Fahrenheit. Regardless what is the duration of intensity of that cold temperature stress, leaves in essence, some of the leaves are being affected. We also have some premature pod maturation. And the main impact on soybeans will be on the seed weight. And the main issue is that we are still defining the seed weight. So anything that is impacting seed weight will impact… severely impacting yields. So, at least for some areas around the state, we have that concern that we may totally see some of these cold temperatures, low temperatures overnight that they will be impacting leaves in essence in the crop will be stopping the seed growth and will probably consequently see some negative impact in yields. Concept and the main message that we need to learn from here is just we need to go out and from the time that we have are seeing the very low temperatures, let’s just wait five to seven days and then after that we go out and do a scouting. If we tend to see the leaves are being senescence and this senescence seems not related to any kind of regulate senescence and sometimes how we can identify that is because we are taking a look to the soybeans and the leaves are being dry or they are presenting necrotic, are the ones in the top section of the canopies. So that’s one of the symptoms or signs or they probably would say, yeah, we are seeing some kind of effect of cold temperature. So the only thing that we can do at this point is just to go out, make sure that we are scouting for those issues. And really the main message is just to make sure that we can probably protect this. This will be producing maybe some anticipation in harvest. So, that’s probably the main message I would have for everyone.

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